The Department of Neurological Surgery is leading the way in neurosurgical research and development. The Department supports ongoing investigations into treatments for brain tumors, epilepsy, CNS congenital anomalies, and neurovascular disease. Physicians at the Brain Tumor Center are developing new brain tumor models, drug delivery methods, anti-angiogenesis therapy, immunotherapy and gene therapy, all in an effort to bring new treatment options to the clinical setting. The University of Chicago Adult Epilepsy program collaborates with brain imaging experts to investigate ways to improve surgical epilepsy treatment with less invasive diagnostic techniques and more effective surgery. The Pediatric Neurosciences Center continues to define the field in cognitive outcomes after treatment for hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies, while providing Phase 1 trials for brain tumor treatment. Current neurovascular research is focused on the molecular mechanisms of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) genesis, a common vascular anomaly affecting 0.5% of the population.